In 1993, the findings of the evaluation from the McCrone Research Institute were that the painting of the scene is entirely in black done directly on a white gesso layer. The white gesso shows lead white and whiting as the pigments. The black paint is bone black and ultramarine. We saw no indication of an underdrawing either with infrared examination or with frontal examination with strong back lighting of the canvas. By 1950 it was almost impossible to avoid using titanium white, and that the absence of titanium white and any organic pigment is a strong indication that this painting dates before 1950.